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全国职称英语等级考试样题(综合类)

www.beatenglish.com 挑战英语 2010-02-07  来源:网络收集 []


第一部分 阅读理解 (75分)
第一篇 Hercules
Once upon a time there was a great Greek hero, Hercules. He was taller and stronger than anyone you have ever seen. On his shoulder he carried a club and in his hand he held a bow. He was known as the hero of a hundred adventures.
Hercules served a king. The king was afraid of him. So again and again he sent him on difficult tasks. One morning the king sent for him and told him to fetch three golden apples for him from the garden of the Singing Maidens (歌女). But no one knew where the garden was.
So Hercules went away. He walked the whole day and the rest day and the next. He walked for months before he saw mountains far in the distance one fine morning. One of the mountains was in the shape of a man, with long, long legs and arms and huge shoulders and a bugs head. He was bolding up the sky. Hercules knew it was Atlas, the Mountain God. So he asked him for help.
Atlas answered, "My head and arms and shoulders all ache. Could you hold up the sky while I fetch the golden apples for you?"
Hercules climbed the mountain and shouldered the sky. Soon the sky grew very heavy. When finally Atlas came back with three golden apples, he said, "Well , you are going to carry the mountain for ever. I'm going to see the king with the apples." Hercules knew that he couldn't fight him because of the sky on his back. So he shouted:
" Just one minute's help. My shoulders are hurting. Hold the sky for a minute while I make a cushion (垫子) for my shoulders."
Atlas believed him. He threw down the apples and help up the sky.
Hercules picked up the apples and ran back to see the king.

1. What do you know about Hercules according to the first paragraph?
○A. He was a Greek hero.
○B. He was a king.
○C. He was the Mountain God.
○D. He was a man of adventures.

2. Hercules was given many difficult tasks because __________.
○A. he was the strongest man.
○B. the king wanted to get rid of him.
○C. the king wanted to test his strength.
○D. those tasks had to be done anyway

3. Which of the following can best describe Atlas according to the text?
○A. He looked like a mountain.
○B. He was a man with bug shoulders and arms.
○C. He was a man with long legs and a huge head.
○D. He was the giant who bled up the sky.

4. Atlas got the golden apples for Hercules because __________.
○A. he wanted to help Hercules
○B. he was afraid of Hercules.
○C. he did not want to hold the sky any more.
○D. he wanted to be the king himself

5. Hercules finally managed to get the apples ___________.
○A. by fooling Atlas
○B. by defeating Atlas
○C. because he ran faster than Atlas
○D. because Atlas threw down the apples

第二篇 Tokyo
Tokyo is one of those places that you can love and hate at the same time.
In Tokyo there are always too many people in the places where I want to be. Of course there are too many cars. The Japanese drive very fast when they can. But in Tokyo they often spend a long time in traffic jams. Tokyo is not different when one wants to walk.
At certain times of the day there are a lot of people on foot in London's Oxford Street. But the streets near Ginza in Tokyo always have a lot of people on foot, and sometimes it is really difficult to walk. People are very polite; there are just too many of them.
The worst time to be in the street is at 11:30 at night. That is when the night-clubs are closing and everybody wants to go home. There are 35,000 night-clubs in Tokyo, and you do not often see one that is empty.
Most people travel to and from work by train. Tokyo people buy six million train tickets every day. At most stations, trains arrive every two or three minutes, but at certain hours there do not seem to be enough trains. Although they are usually crowded, Japanese trains are very good. They always leave and arrive on time. On a London train you would see everybody reading a newspaper. In Tokyo trains everybody in a seat seems to be asleep, whether his journey is long or short.
In Tokyo, I stood outside the station for five minutes. Three fire-engines raced past on the way to one of the many fires that Tokyo has every day. Tokyo has so many surprises that none of them can really surprise me now. instead, I am surprised at myself: I must go there next year on business. I know I hate the overcrowded city. But I feel like a man who is returning to his long-lost love.

6. Tokyo is different from London in that ____________.
○A. it has a smaller population
○B. it is an international city
○C. it is more difficult to go somewhere on foot in Tokyo
○D. its people are friendlier and more polite.

7. What time does the writer think is the worst time to go into the street?
○A. When the night-clubs are closing.
○B. At 8 o'clock in the morning.
○C. When the train is overcrowded.
○D. At 11:30 a.m.

8. What does the writer say about Japanese trains?
○A. They are very nice and comfortable.
○B. There are not enough trains.
○C. They often run behind schedule.
○D. They leave and arrive at the right time.

9. From the writer's observation, we can see that fires break out in Tokyo _______.
○A. occasionally.
○B. quite frequently
○C. not very often
○D. twice a day

10. The writer hates Tokyo mainly because the city _________.
○A. is dirty and the people are impolite
○B. has been seriously polluted
○C. is crowded and noisy
○D. is not modern enough

第三篇 The Child Witness
Going to court can be frightening, especially if you are a child. You may have to stand up in the witness (证人) box, and swear (发誓) to tell the truth and answer questions is front of a crowd of adults. It would be even more frightening if you were the victim of a crime and you had to sit in the same courtroom (法庭) as the person accused of attacking you, for instance.
So the law in Britain has made it easier for children to act as witnesses. Children are allowed to tell what they know, from another room in the same courthouse. This way they do not have to face all those people in the courtroom.
It works on a closed-circuit (闭路的) television link, which means that the TV only operates inside the court. The child witness sits in a room with a social worker in front of a TV camera. Everyone in the courtroom can see the child on a TV screen, but the child can only see the judge and the lawyers who will ask him or her questions. The system has been so successful that is will be extended to more courts this year.
Another way to make it easy for a child to act a witness is to set up a screen is the court room around the witness box so that the child cannot see the defendant (被告).
Information given by children can be very important to a court trial (审判), but before 1988 the law did not really recognizes that children told the truth. It stated that anything a child said in court had to be supported by other evidence in the case.

11. A child witness, if he were the victim of the crime, would be frightened most by ____________.
○A. all the questions he had to answer
○B. the crowd of adults he had to face
○C. the judge and the lawyers
○D. the person accused of attacking him

12. The most important point of the new system that made things easier for a child witness is that ______________.
○A. he does not see the defendant
○B. he speaks in front of a TV camera
○C. he is in another room is the same courthouse
○D. everyone in the courtroom can see the child

13. What does the author think of the new system according to the third paragraph?
○A. Not very good.
○B. Very successful.
○C. Just an experiment.
○D. Hardly acceptable.

14. Has the law always recognized the importance of children's information in court?
○A. No.
○B. Yes.
○C. Not until 1988.
○D. Before 1988, yes.

15. The word "case" in the last paragraph means __________.
○A. a particular situation
○B. a particular incident
○C. a trial
○D. a box

第二部分 完成句子 (25分)
根据短文内容完成句子,每个空格只能填一个单词。有的单词第一个字母已经给出,请将其余字母补全。
Television is the USA
Thirty-four percent of the world's television sets are in the USA. But it is not fair that some foreigners have concluded that America has a TV culture. Still it is true that American TV has great power and can make or break well-known people in front of the camera. There are a thousand stations in the 50 states, and in most places there is a choice of five or six channels. The major networks (National Broadcasting Company, Columbia Broadcasting System and the American Broadcasting Company) introduce a lot of new shows of every kind. Those dramas, soap operas, talk shows, news shows, and sport shows which are successful, are relayed (转播) throughout America and are often sold abroad. Roots, by the black writer Ales Haley, for example, was sold all over the world.
Nearly all TV in the USA is commercial, and programs are interrupted every quarter of an hour or so for advertisements. These breaks make people upset, especially during some exciting action in a good film. However, commercials do make it possible to show programs on TV that are expensive to produce.
There is one channel where there are no commercial breaks. Programs on this channel are run by the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and can be seen all over the USA. Although the PBS gets a grant from the government, the government does not interfere in any way in the organization of its programs. There are programs on everyday affairs, music, the arts, as well as serious discussions on al kinds of topics. Some programs are supported by companies or institutions, but these organizations are not allowed to influence the content of program.

16. The conclusion made by some foreigners that America has a television culture is not f .
17. A great number of new shows are introduced by t he leading n in the USA.
18. There is just one c without breaks for advertisements in the USA.
19. While people are watching TV programs, breaks for advertisements can make them w .
20. Although some companies supply money for some programs, they are not a to have influence upon the content of the programs in any way.

第三部分 阅读理解 (80分)
第一篇 How to Find the Best Book Reviews
Normally, you will want the sources for a paper to be the best ones possible. Since there is a great deal of material available on most subjects, you don't want to waste your time reading an inaccurate or superficial book. It is sometimes wise, therefore, to first evaluate a book for accuracy and thoroughness. If you are unfamiliar with the subject of executive power, for example, you may wonder whether or not the book President and Congress; Power and Police, by L. Fisher (1972), will be a good source of information. The essayist way to find it out is to read some reviews of the book.
Book reviews appear in almost every newspaper and magazine. To quickly find the reviews you want, use a reference book such as Book Review Digest. Beginning in 1905, its editors annually compile (编辑) book reviews from about seventh-five periodicals (期刊) and newspapers and need to know two things to use this tool: the year the book was published and the correct spelling of the author's name.
A reference book with slightly broader coverage (覆盖面) is Book Review Index (1966-). In it, however, summaries of the reviews are not included. A newcomer, Current Book Review Citations (引证), is even better for books published from 1976 on, since it indexes the book reviews that are listed in many major periodicals, indexes. One caution (警告) when searching for reviews in this : if you don't find one under the year a book was published, look at the following year or years. Reviews like college students, sometimes fall behind in their writing schedules.

21. It is necessary to read reviews because you want to ___________.
○A. know everything about a book
○B. find a reliable source of information
○C. know if the book is too easy or hard
○D. fine the author's educational background.

22. where can you very quickly find the book reviews you want?
○A. In newspapers.
○B. In magazines.
○C. In Book Review Digest.
○D. In newspaper supplements.

23. IF you want to find reviews on a book published in 1920, which of the following will you go to?
○A. Book Review Digest.
○B. Book Review Index.
○C. Current Book Review Citations.
○D. Both A and B.

24. If you need the most thorough information of reviews on a recent book, which of the following do you go to?
○A. Book Review Digest.
○B. Book Review Index.
○C. Both A and B.
○D. Current Book Review Citations.

25. The last sentence of this passage implies that college students in the West ______.
○A. often hand in their written work late.
○B. do not like making plans.
○C. always finish their homework on time.
○D. usually follow schedules.

第二篇 Coal Mining
England was a good place for coal. Near the seacoast coal was often washed out of the ground onto the beaches. Women and children gathered it to heat homes cheaply. But the noble class people once refused to allow cooking over coal fires. They believed coal smoke was poisonous.
The Dutch (荷兰人) too were mining coal in 1113. But as they dug their mines deeper and deeper, the open flames of oil lamps often caused the gases in the mines to explode. It was not until 1815 that a safety lamp was invented. Sir Humphrey Davy invented a lamp inside a covering. The covering cooled the gases enough to prevent them from exploding. And the flame inside the lamp burned blue when gas was present. This is still a valuable tool combining lighting with safety.
Then came a new important development. James Watt's steam engine gave human beings more power than anyone had ever before imagined. By 1760 coal was being used in the steam engine and the demand for coal increased. But human labor was still the only power for mining. More workers were needed. Sick men, old men, and children were all sent to work in the mines. Coal! More coal! Work them all to death, but produce the coal!
Today, mechanical devices have replaced much of the hard muscle work in the miner's job. Huge machines cut into rock where coal is to be found. The machines break the coal and load it into cars or onto conveyor beles (传送带). Huge machines lift the coal , at 12,000 pounds a minute, onto conveyor beles which carry the coal several miles. To miners a hundred years ago, all this would have seemed like a kind of miner's heaven!

26. It was easy for women and children to gather coal in England because _________.
○A. they lived near the coal mine
○B. coal was washed onto the ground
○C. rich people refused to use coal
○D. England was rich in coal

27. How can miners know whether there is the danger of gas explosion or not?
○A. From the smell of gases around them.
○B. From the pressure of gases inside the mine.
○C. From the color of the flame inside the lamp.
○D. From the height of the flame inside the lamp.

28. According to the passage, the invention of the steam engine led to _______.
○A. an increasing demand for coal
○B. less human labor for mining
○C. much more work for people to do
○D. the use of mechanical devices in mining.

29. Which is the best interpretation of "work them to death, but produce the coal" in the 3rd paragraph?
○A. Coal had to be produced even if many miners would die of working overtime.
○B. Miners were not afraid of death in order to produce enough coal.
○C. Miners were made to work till they died.
○D. Every miner worked to death to produce the coal.

30. The last paragraph of this passage says that _________.
○A. human labor is no longer needed in coal mining
○B. new instruments have greatly improved coal production
○C. modern machines have made miners lose their jobs
○D. coal mines today have become miners' paradise

第四部分 概括大意 (20分)
给下面一篇文章的每一段概括大意。每一段的主题用一个或几个单词表示,空出的词已给出了第一个字母,请把其余字母补全。
31. R of Women
Women's rights are guarantees of political, social, and economic equality for women in a society that traditionally gives more power and freedom to men. Among these rights are control of property, equality of opportunity in education and employment, right of voting, and freedom of marriage. Today, complete political, economic, and social equality with men remains to be achieved.

32. Traditional Sta of Women
Male control was obvious from the time of the earliest written historical records, probable as a result of men's role in hunting and warfare. The belief that women were naturally weaker and inferior to men was also found in god-centered religions. Therefore, in most traditional societies, women generally were at a disadvantage. A woman had no legal control over her person, her own land and money, or her children.

33. S of Women's Rights Movement
The Age of Enlightenment (启蒙时期) and the Industrial Revolution, which caused economic and social progress, provided a favorable climate for the rise of women's rights movement in the late 18th and the 19th century. In 1848 more than 100 persons held the first women's rights convention in New York, and the feminists (女权主义者) demanded equal rights, including the vote.

34. Dev 
In the late 1960s women made up about 40 percent of the work force in England, France, Germany, and the Untied States. This figure rose to more than 50 percent by the mid-1980s. A commission under the President was established in 1960 to consider equal opportunities for women. Acts of Congress entitled them to equality in education, employment, and legal rights. In 1964 the Civil Rights Act, initially intended only for black, was extended to women.

35. Go 
The objectives of the women's movement included equal pay for equal work, federal support for day-care centres, recognition of lesbian (女同性恋者) rights, making abortion (堕胎) legal, and the focus of serious attention on the problems of forced sex relations, wife and child beating, and discrimination against older and minority women.

第五部分 阅读理解 (120分)
第一篇 Physicians in the USA
Self-employed private physicians who charge a fee for each patient visit are the foundation of medical practice in the United States. Most physicians have a contract relationship with not or more hospital in the community. They send their patients to this hospital, which usually charges patients that they use. Some hospitals belong to a city, a state or, in the case of veterans' hospitals, a federal government agency. Others are operated by religious orders (教堂) or other non-profit groups.
Some medical doctors are on salary. Salaried physicians may work as hospital staff members, or residents, who are often still in training. They may teach in medical schools, be hired by corporations to care for their workers or work for the federal government's Public Health Service.
Physicians are among the best paid professionals in the United States. In the 1980s, it was not uncommon for medical doctors to earn incomes of more than $ 100,000 a year. Specialists, particularly surgeons, might earn several times that amount. Physicians list many reasons why they deserve to be so well rewarded for their work. One reason is the long and expensive preparation requited to become a physician in the United States. Most would -be physicians first attend college for four years, which can cost nearly $ 20,000 a year at one of the best private institutions. Prospective (未来) physicians then attend medical school for four years. Tuition alone can exceed $ 10,000 a year. By the time they have obtained their medical degrees, many young physicians are deeply in debt. They still face three to five years of residency (实行阶段) in a hospital, the first year as an apprentice physician. The hours are long and they pay in relatively low.
Setting up a medical practice is expensive, too. Sometimes several physicians will decide to establish a group practice, so they can share the expense of maintaining an office and buying equipment. These physicians also of each other's patients in emergencies.
Physicians work long hours and must accept a great deal of responsibility. Many medical procedures, even quite routine ones, involve risk. It is understandable that physicians want to be well rewarded for making decisions which can mean the difference between life and death.

36. According to the passage, it is very unlikely that an American hospital is owned by __________.
○A. a church
○B. a corporation
○C. a city
○D. a state

37. The expenses for becoming a doctor are spent on _________.
○A. schooling and training
○B. practice in a hospital
○C. facilities he or she uses.
○D. education he or she receives

38. According to the passage, how long does it take for a would-be physician to become and independent physician in the USA?
○A. About seven years.
○B. Eight years.
○C. Ten years.
○D. About twelve years.

39. Sometimes several physicians set up a group medical practice mainly because _______.
○A. they may have more patients
○B. they can take turns to work long hours
○C. facilities may be a big burden to an individual
○D. no one wants to assume too much responsibility

40. Which of the following statements could fully express the author's view towards physicians' payment in the USA?
○A. Physicians' expensive education and the characteristics of their work make them well deserve the handsome pay
○B. It is reasonable for physicians to have a large income because their work is very dangerous.
○C. Physicians should be better paid because they work long hours under bad conditions.
○D. Physicians shoulder great responsibility, so it is understand able that they should be well rewarded.

第二篇 Water Pollution and Man
Water pollution affects man's health, recreational use of water, industrial of water and sense of beauty.
The spread of water-carried disease is of great concern. In highly developed countries in particular, emphasis has shifted from concern over bacterial disease to concern over water-carried viral (病毒性的) disease. Viral hepatitis (肝炎), for example, has been found to occur more frequently in cities whose water supplies have comparatively high levels of water impurity. Poisonous chemicals found in streams that are ultimately used for water supplies also create an important public health problem.
It is clear that poisonous chemicals must be excluded from water, but more and more chemicals from new pesticides, fertilizers, and other new products have been found in water. Since the public health significance of these chemicals is not yet fully known, they are of increasing concern. The chemicals from fertilizers are also finding their way into water supplies from groundwater pollution.
As man's desire for water-based recreation increases, greater demands are placed on the quality of water. The water must not only be attractive in appearance but also meet certain other conditions. Sports such as swimming involve direct contact with water, and so water standards are raised higher.
The range of water quality necessary for industrial processes varies greatly with the intended use of to water. The water used in steel mills, for example, must have a lower chloride (氯物) level than that accepted for drinking water. Cooling water can often be of comparatively low sanitary quality. A large part of the water used in the paper-making industry can be of relatively low quality in some aspects, but must contain little iron and carbon dioxide.

41. According to the passage, the people in highly developed countries today are most concerned about _________.
○A. bacterial disease
○B. water-carried disease
○C. poisonous chemicals in streams
○D. water impurity

42. The chemicals from pesticides and fertilizers found in water are of increasing concern because ____________.
○A. Their significance to man's health has not been completely known.
○B. they may cause groundwater pollution
○C. they can find their way into water supplies for farmers
○D. they are important factors contributing to the spread of disease

43. According to the passage, water-based recreation demands that _______.
○A. the water contain a higher level of oxygen
○B. the water contain little iron and carbon dioxide
○C. the water be attractive and of high quality
○D. the water standards be appropriate for all sports

44. In the last paragraph, the author mentions all of the following except _________.
○A. water quality necessary for steel mills
○B. soft water and hard water for industrial processes
○C. cooling water of low sanitary quality
○D. water standards for paper mills

45. As the passage is not complete, that do you think would follow in its full text?
○A. The relationship between carbon dioxide and paper making.
○B. Water pollution's direct economic effects on man.
○C. Examples of continued water pollution.
○D. Man's views on water pollution in terms of beauty values.

第六部分 完形填空 (30分)
根据短文在空白处填上适当的单词,该单词的第一个字母已经给出。
Crime and Drugs
Despite the respect of most Americans for law and the determination of the legal system to protect the rights of individuals, the United States, like all other countries, does experience crime. Especially in large cities, the c 46 rate can be high.
A high percentage of crime in the United States in directly related to the illegal sale and u 47 of drugs. Drugs are smuggled i 48 the country by organized groups of criminals despite intense efforts by the government to stop the illegal drug trade. T 49 who become addicted to drug use sometimes rob or break into houses or stores to get money to pay f 50 the drugs.
Drug use has caused great concern i 51 the United States. The federal government has worked hard to stop the growing of drug plants in other c 52 . It has also set up special agencies, sometimes working with agencies from o 53 nations, to catch the smugglers outside and inside the United States. Teachers and many other citizens work together to t 54 children about the dangers of drug use. Many government agencies in the states and private citizen groups work to help drug addicts give u 55 their drug use and turn to useful lives.
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